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I understand that I have all the nutrition. Did you do it?

The most basic nutritional knowledge everyone should know

Today, we will talk about another key point of the nutrition section: micronutrients.
Health is closely related to the choice of ingredients, and there are micronutrients. Why do we have to eat more fresh vegetables of different colors? What is the reason for not taking the vacation when you lose weight? Do you need vitamin supplements? Today, let’s take a look at it~

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Unlike macronutrients, micronutrients do not provide calories, and the body does not have as much macronutrients as they need. When eating macronutrients, the body may soon have hunger, but when micronutrients are scarce, usually only At a certain level, symptoms of malnutrition appear, but they are also an essential part of the normal functioning of the human body. Micronutrients include minerals and vitamins. They cannot be produced by the body and must be taken from food.
Fitness workers need to pay extra attention to some of the nutrients, not only enough to eat, but also to ensure the balance between the various nutrients, to make efficient use, in order to achieve the best state.

Some notable minerals and minerals are important substances that constitute the body tissues and regulate physiological functions. The lack of minerals may cause various problems: osteoporosis, imbalance of blood and tissue acid and alkali, etc., which seriously affect daily life and sports. Here are a few minerals that are most relevant to the fitness population or some special populations. Calcium 1. Value and role: Calcium is especially important for people in sports. It maintains acid-base balance, helps muscle contraction, strengthens bones and prevents fractures. Lack of calcium can cause osteoporosis, rickets, muscle dysfunction; lack of calcium intake at a young age can lead to long-term negative effects - the body will use bones as a supply of calcium, and the human bone mass will be 25 years old The peak is reached when it is left and right, and then gradually decreases. The older the age, the greater the possibility of osteoporosis.

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2. Source of Ingestion: According to the Chinese Dietary Guidelines 2017, the “vegetable food”-based eating habits lead to a much lower daily calcium intake in our country than in European and American countries where “animal food” is the main source. Everyone (especially children who are growing up and developing; those who have insufficient energy intake; those who exercise a lot) use dairy products, soy products, dark green vegetables (such as kelp), and beans to supplement calcium. 3. Note: (1) Friends with severe lactose intolerance can eat yogurt; (2) Dark green vegetables need to first remove water to remove oxalic acid, which can greatly increase the absorption rate of minerals; (3) calcium can be more sun-dried Sun exposure helps the skin synthesize vitamin D. Vitamin D can promote the absorption of calcium. (I will explain later).

Sodium 1. Value and role: Healthy diet advocates less oil and less salt, and limits sodium intake. This is positive for people with high blood pressure and heavy mouth, but proper supplementation of "sodium" is also positive for others. Role, especially for athletes. High temperature and high humidity environment, easy to sweat body, exercise time of more than two hours, etc. may cause excessive loss of sodium in sweat, which may lead to muscle cramps, nausea and vomiting, convulsions and coma. When people lose fat, they tend to drink more water. At this time, there is more natural drainage and more danger of sodium loss. If the above symptoms occur, you should immediately drink sports drinks or eat salty snacks. 2. Source of intake: salt. Salty food. Iron talks about micronutrients, and iron is a topic that cannot be avoided. 1. Value and role: Iron deficiency is a common global nutritional deficiency: iron is lost from sweat and blood, and large amounts of exercise require more iron intake; iron is mostly from meat (although dark green) Vegetables and beans also provide iron, but the absorption rate is very low); excessive intake of other minerals (calcium, magnesium, zinc) will further reduce the utilization of iron - so, women of maternity, pregnant women, vegetarians Children, such as iron deficiency, are more likely. Iron deficiency can lead to fatigue, decreased immunity, decreased body temperature, and even slowed down metabolic rate, inhibited fat loss, and affected exercise performance. The lack of iron in fitness women is more common. If the weight loss period increases the amount of training and does not like red meat, the above symptoms and even menstrual periods are not adjusted, and it is almost certainly iron deficiency. 2. Source of intake: meat. Animal kidneys (such as pig blood, pig liver).

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Zinc levels in zinc endurance athletes may be lower than normal, which may result from inadequate dietary supplementation or loss of sweat – which may affect wound healing and immune function, resulting in loss of appetite, stagnant child development, and dry skin. At the same time, excessive zinc is also toxic, and the lack of zinc should be supplemented with zinc (meat, fish, shellfish, eggs, nuts, etc.). 2 Some notable vitamins Here are a few vitamins that are most relevant to the fitness population or some special populations. Vitamin A1. Value and role It maintains epithelial cells and the immune system health, and is closely related to normal vision; lack of it can lead to dry skin, headache, irritability, vomiting and vision problems. 2. Sources of intake and precautions: The lack of vitamin A in Chinese residents is more common. Because excessive intake of vitamin A can also cause toxicity, it should be supplemented from food - all red, orange, yellow and dark fruits and vegetables; at the same time, it is best to take a certain amount every day, do not suddenly intake too much Otherwise, it may cause the skin to turn yellow.

Vitamin B61. Value and Function The function of this vitamin is closely related to the metabolism of protein. The greater the protein intake, the higher the demand for it. It is commonly found in high-protein foods, with the most liver content in animals; if it is lacking, it may cause symptoms such as stomatitis, muscle weakness, and withdrawal. In the sports population, people who need to limit their body weight may suffer from vitamin B6 deficiency due to insufficient calorie intake – this should be based on food supplementation. 2. Source of intake: meat, cereals, soy products. Vitamin B121. Value and role Vegetarians (especially those who are vegetarian all year round) need to be wary of vitamin B12 deficiency because it is mainly derived from animal foods (meat, fish, egg and milk). It plays an important role in protein metabolism synthesis, neural development, etc. Lack of it may lead to weakness, fatigue, poor muscle coordination, dementia, and pernicious anemia. 2. Sources of intake and precautions B12 is mainly derived from animal foods (meat, fish, egg and milk), but it should be noted that the utilization rate of B12 in food is not the same - higher dairy products, eggs Lower; vegetarians can take B12 from fermented foods or algae foods, but the utilization rate is not high, it is best to add supplements. In addition, there are some products in the European and American markets that have added vitamin B12 to vegetarians, such as soy milk and almond milk, which can also be used as vegetarian supplements.

Vitamin D
In recent years, the most discussed vitamins in the European and American world can be supplemented by sun, cod liver oil and egg-milk products. Modern people's living habits determine that most people spend less time outdoors, especially when the weather is short, and some areas add to the milk in order to solve the vitamin D deficiency. Dietary sources of vitamin D include eggs, liver, butter and margarine. Its lack may lead to calcium and phosphorus deficiency and trigger related conditions; and strengthening its supplement can also increase the absorption of both, and promote growth.

How do the fitness people eat? There are a lot of micronutrients mentioned above, you may feel cumbersome, but it doesn't matter. Next we will talk about how fitness people should judge which micronutrients are needed.

Do you need four criteria for supplementation: If there have been no dietary changes recently, are the ingredients in my diet fresh and diverse, and reasonable? If not, start with food. If you have recently reduced fat or tried a new diet, is this a big difference from the diet I am used to? If it is and cannot be avoided (such as trying vegetarian food, etc.), you can add supplements. If there is a change in the living environment or habits recently, does this make me feel tired, difficult to fall asleep or recover from some special symptoms, affecting athletic performance or daily life? If it is and cannot be avoided (such as reducing outdoor exercise time, less sun exposure, time difference, etc.), you can add supplements. If you can't get enough nutrients from your diet, or have special nutritional needs, such as pregnant women, vegetarians, athletes who are over-consumed and need to control their weight, then you should follow the doctor's advice to supplement your nutritional supplements. How much? how to eat? 1. How much to eat depends on the supplement instructions or doctor's advice, and avoid eating it yourself. Excessive intake of some micronutrients may also pose risks, which may damage the nutritional balance and hinder the absorption of other micronutrients: supplementing a large amount of calcium supplements when eating iron-containing foods may affect the absorption of the former, and therefore should be taken separately.